Civil Engineering Viva Questions and Answers

Civil Engineering Viva Questions and Answers

Civil Engineering Viva Questions and Answers

Q: What is Civil Engineering?

A: Civil Engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the built environment, including buildings, roads, bridges, airports, water supply systems, and other infrastructure.

Q: What are the different types of foundations?

A: The different types of foundations include shallow foundations (such as spread footings and mat foundations) and deep foundations (such as driven piles, drilled shafts, and helical piles).

Q: What is the difference between cement and concrete?

A: Cement is a binding material that is used to make concrete, which is a mixture of cement, aggregates (such as sand and gravel), and water.

Q: What are the different types of beams?

A: The different types of beams include simply supported beams, cantilever beams, continuous beams, and overhanging beams.

Q: What is the purpose of a retaining wall?

A: A retaining wall is used to retain soil or other materials in a sloping or uneven terrain. It prevents soil erosion and landslides and provides stability to the ground.

Q: What is the difference between a revetment and a seawall?

A: A revetment is a sloping structure that is used to protect a shoreline from erosion, while a seawall is a vertical structure that is used to prevent waves from reaching the shore.

Q: What are the different types of pavement?

A: The different types of pavement include flexible pavement (such as asphalt concrete), rigid pavement (such as concrete pavement), and composite pavement (a combination of both).

Q: What is a geotechnical investigation?

A: A geotechnical investigation is a process that involves collecting and analyzing soil and rock samples to determine the physical and engineering properties of the site. This information is used to design foundations, slopes, and other earthworks.

Q: What is the difference between a beam and a column?

A: A beam is a horizontal structural element that supports vertical loads, while a column is a vertical structural element that supports axial loads.

Q: What are the different types of bridges?

A: The different types of bridges include beam bridges, arch bridges, suspension bridges, cable-stayed bridges, and truss bridges.

Q: What is the difference between a beam bridge and a truss bridge?

A: A beam bridge is a simple type of bridge that consists of a horizontal beam supported by piers, while a truss bridge is a more complex type of bridge that consists of a series of interconnected triangles that distribute loads across the structure.

Q: What is the purpose of a water treatment plant?

A: A water treatment plant is used to treat raw water from a natural source (such as a river or lake) to make it safe for human consumption. The treatment process involves removing impurities, disinfecting the water, and adding chemicals to balance its pH.

Q: What is the difference between a storm sewer and a sanitary sewer?

A: A storm sewer is a pipe or channel that carries rainwater and other runoff away from streets and buildings, while a sanitary sewer is a pipe that carries sewage from homes and businesses to a treatment plant.

Q: What is the purpose of a soil compaction test?

A: A soil compaction test is used to determine the density of soil and how well it will support a structure. The test involves measuring the weight and volume of soil, and calculating its compaction characteristics.

Q: What is the difference between a culvert and a drainage ditch?

A: A culvert is a structure that carries water under a roadway or other obstruction, while a drainage ditch is a channel that carries water away from a site.

Q: What is the difference between a dam and a levee?

A: A dam is a structure that is used to store water or regulate its flow, while a levee is an embankment that is built to protect land from flooding.

Q: What is the difference between a retaining wall and a bulkhead?

A: A retaining wall is a structure that is used to retain soil or other materials in a sloping or uneven terrain, while a bulkhead is a wall or embankment that is built along a shoreline to protect it from erosion.

Q: What is the difference between a culvert and an aqueduct?

A: A culvert is a structure that carries water under a roadway or other obstruction, while an aqueduct is a bridge-like structure that is used to transport water over long distances.

Q: What is the difference between a landfill and an incinerator?

A: A landfill is a site where waste is buried and left to decompose over time, while an incinerator is a facility that burns waste to generate energy or reduce its volume.

Q: What is the difference between a geogrid and a geotextile?

A: A geogrid is a synthetic material that is used to reinforce soil and provide stability to earthworks, while a geotextile is a permeable fabric that is used to filter water and prevent soil erosion.

Q: What is the difference between a culvert and a bridge culvert?

A: A culvert is a structure that allows water to pass under a roadway or other obstruction, while a bridge culvert is a culvert that is designed to support the weight of a bridge or other heavy load.

Q: What is the difference between a diaphragm wall and a sheet pile wall?

A: A diaphragm wall is a reinforced concrete wall that is used to provide support to deep excavations and underground structures, while a sheet pile wall is a series of interlocking steel or concrete sheets that are driven into the ground to provide temporary support to excavations or shorelines.

Q: What is the difference between a pre-stressed concrete beam and a post-tensioned concrete beam?

A: A pre-stressed concrete beam is a beam that is manufactured with pre-stressed steel strands that are tensioned before the concrete is poured, while a post-tensioned concrete beam is a beam that is manufactured with steel strands that are tensioned after the concrete has cured.

Q: What is the difference between a blacktop and an asphalt road?

A: A blacktop road is a road that is made with a mixture of gravel, sand, and asphalt, while an asphalt road is a road that is made with a mixture of asphalt cement, aggregates, and additives.

Q: What is the difference between a ground source heat pump and an air source heat pump?

A: A ground source heat pump is a system that extracts heat from the ground to heat buildings, while an air source heat pump is a system that extracts heat from the air to heat buildings.

Q: What is the difference between a septic tank and a sewage treatment plant?

A: A septic tank is a tank that is used to treat wastewater from a home or building, while a sewage treatment plant is a facility that is used to treat wastewater from a community or city.

Q: What is the difference between a gravity dam and an arch dam?

A: A gravity dam is a dam that is made of concrete or masonry and relies on its weight to resist the pressure of water, while an arch dam is a dam that is curved in shape and relies on its arching action to resist the pressure of water.

Q: What is the difference between a single-ply roof and a built-up roof?

A: A single-ply roof is a roofing system that consists of a single layer of roofing material, while a built-up roof is a roofing system that consists of multiple layers of roofing material, such as asphalt and gravel.

Q: What is the difference between a landslide and a rockslide?

A: A landslide is a mass movement of soil or rock down a slope, while a rockslide is a mass movement of rock down a slope.

Q: What is the difference between a soil and a rock?

A: Soil is an unconsolidated material that is composed of minerals, organic matter, and air or water, while rock is a consolidated material that is composed of minerals or mineral-like substances.

Q: What is the difference between a concrete slab and a concrete beam?

A: A concrete slab is a horizontal element that is designed to support loads over a large area, while a concrete beam is a vertical or horizontal element that is designed to support loads over a smaller area.

Q: What is the difference between a bearing capacity and a settlement of soil?

A: Bearing capacity is the maximum load that a soil can support without failure, while settlement is the vertical deformation of a soil under a load.

Q: What is the difference between a footing and a foundation?

A: A footing is a concrete or masonry structure that is designed to transfer the load of a structure to the soil, while a foundation is the entire system of footings, walls, and columns that supports a structure.

Q: What is the difference between a soil slope and a rock slope?

A: A soil slope is a slope that is composed of soil or other unconsolidated material, while a rock slope is a slope that is composed of rock or other consolidated material.

Q: What is the difference between a wetland and a swamp?

A: A wetland is an area of land that is covered by water or has soil that is saturated with water, while a swamp is a type of wetland that is characterized by the presence of trees and woody vegetation.

Q: What is the difference between a retaining wall and a sheet pile wall?

A: A retaining wall is a structure that is designed to retain soil or other materials, while a sheet pile wall is a temporary or permanent wall made of interlocking steel or concrete sheets that is driven into the ground to provide support to excavations or shorelines.

Q: What is the difference between a permeable pavement and an impermeable pavement?

A: A permeable pavement is a pavement system that allows water to infiltrate through the surface and into the ground, while an impermeable pavement is a pavement system that does not allow water to infiltrate through the surface and instead directs it to a drainage system.

Q: What is the difference between a culvert and a storm sewer?

A: A culvert is a structure that allows water to pass under a roadway or other obstruction, while a storm sewer is a system of pipes or channels that is designed to carry stormwater runoff to a designated discharge point.

Q: What is the difference between a landfill and a dump?

A: A landfill is a facility that is designed to dispose of waste in a controlled and environmentally sound manner, while a dump is an unregulated site where waste is simply dumped and left to decompose.

Q: What is the difference between a strut and a tie?

A: A strut is a member that is designed to resist compression forces, while a tie is a member that is designed to resist tension forces.

Q: What is the difference between a pre-stressed and post-tensioned concrete?

A: In pre-stressed concrete, the steel reinforcement is tensioned before the concrete is poured, while in post-tensioned concrete, the steel reinforcement is tensioned after the concrete is poured.

Q: What is the difference between a truss and a beam?

A: A truss is a structure that is composed of a series of interconnected triangles, while a beam is a horizontal or sloping structural member that is designed to support loads perpendicular to its longitudinal axis.

Q: What is the difference between a cantilever and a simply supported beam?

A: A cantilever is a beam that is supported at one end and free at the other, while a simply supported beam is a beam that is supported at both ends.

Q: What is the difference between an arch and a beam?

A: An arch is a curved structure that is designed to transmit loads through compression, while a beam is a straight or curved structural member that is designed to transmit loads through bending.

Q: What is the difference between a steel and a concrete bridge?

A: A steel bridge is a bridge that is constructed primarily using steel, while a concrete bridge is a bridge that is constructed primarily using concrete.

Q: What is the difference between a reinforced and prestressed concrete beam?

A: A reinforced concrete beam contains steel reinforcement to resist bending stresses, while a prestressed concrete beam contains pre-tensioned or post-tensioned steel reinforcement to reduce or eliminate the bending stresses.

Q: What is the difference between a retaining wall and a gravity wall?

A: A retaining wall relies on lateral earth pressure to resist soil forces and is typically designed as a cantilever or a reinforced soil structure, while a gravity wall relies on its own weight and the weight of the retained soil to resist soil forces.

Q: What is the difference between a reinforced concrete and a masonry wall?

A: A reinforced concrete wall is constructed primarily using reinforced concrete, while a masonry wall is constructed primarily using brick, block, or stone.

Q: What is the difference between a sluice gate and a slide gate?

A: A sluice gate is a gate that is designed to control the flow of water through a channel or conduit, while a slide gate is a gate that is designed to provide an effective seal against water or other fluids.

Q: What is the difference between a pipe and a tube?

A: A pipe is a cylindrical or rectangular hollow section that is designed to transport fluids, gases or solids, while a tube is a long, thin, hollow cylinder that is used to support structures or convey fluids and gases.

Q: What is the difference between a piling and a pier?

A: A piling is a long, slender structural member that is driven or drilled deep into the ground to provide support for structures or foundations, while a pier is a vertical column or post that supports a bridge or a deck.

Q: What is the difference between an embankment dam and a concrete dam?

A: An embankment dam is a dam that is constructed using natural materials such as soil, rock, or gravel, while a concrete dam is a dam that is constructed using reinforced concrete.

Q: What is the difference between a shallow foundation and a deep foundation?

A: A shallow foundation is a foundation that is located close to the ground surface and is used to transfer loads to the soil, while a deep foundation is a foundation that is located at a greater depth and is used to transfer loads to deeper, more stable soil layers.

Q: What is the difference between a prestressed and post-tensioned concrete?

A: In pre-stressed concrete, the steel reinforcement is tensioned before the concrete is poured, while in post-tensioned concrete, the steel reinforcement is tensioned after the concrete is poured.

Q: What is the difference between a revetment and a riprap?

A: A revetment is a sloping wall or structure that is designed to protect an embankment or shoreline from erosion or scour, while a riprap is a layer of large stones or concrete blocks that is placed along an embankment or shoreline to protect against erosion.

Q: What is the difference between a turbine and a pump?

A: A turbine is a machine that is designed to convert the energy of a fluid into mechanical energy, while a pump is a machine that is designed to convert mechanical energy into the energy of a fluid.

Q: What is the difference between an expansion joint and a contraction joint?

A: An expansion joint is a joint that is designed to accommodate the expansion and contraction of a structure due to temperature changes, while a contraction joint is a joint that is designed to control the cracking of concrete due to drying shrinkage.

Q: What is the difference between a septic tank and a sewage treatment plant?

A: A septic tank is a system that is used to treat and dispose of sewage from a single household or building, while a sewage treatment plant is a facility that is used to treat and dispose of sewage from multiple sources.

Q: What is the difference between reinforced and prestressed concrete?

A: Reinforced concrete contains steel reinforcement to resist bending stresses, while prestressed concrete contains pre-tensioned or post-tensioned steel reinforcement to reduce or eliminate the bending stresses.

Q: What is the difference between a gravity dam and an arch dam?

A: A gravity dam is a dam that relies on its own weight and the weight of the retained water to resist water pressure, while an arch dam is a curved dam that is designed to transmit water pressure to the abutments on either side of the valley.

Q: What is the difference between a soil nail and a ground anchor?

A: A soil nail is a type of retaining wall that uses steel bars or nails to reinforce the soil and prevent it from moving, while a ground anchor is a type of foundation that uses a steel cable or rod to anchor a structure to the ground.

Q: What is the difference between a cantilever retaining wall and a counterfort retaining wall?

A: A cantilever retaining wall is a retaining wall that is supported by a horizontal base slab and a vertical stem, while a counterfort retaining wall is a retaining wall that is supported by a series of counterforts or buttresses.

Q: What is the difference between a pile cap and a pier cap?

A: A pile cap is a concrete foundation that is used to transfer the load of a column or a group of columns to a pile or a group of piles, while a pier cap is a concrete foundation that is used to support a bridge pier or a column that is not supported by piles.

Q: What is the difference between a sheet pile and a soldier pile?

A: A sheet pile is a type of retaining wall that is composed of interlocking steel or concrete sheets that are driven into the ground to retain soil or water, while a soldier pile is a type of retaining wall that uses vertical steel or concrete piles that are driven into the ground and connected by horizontal beams.

Q: What is the difference between a steel structure and a concrete structure?

A: A steel structure is a structure that is constructed primarily using steel, while a concrete structure is a structure that is constructed primarily using concrete.

Q: What is the difference between a reinforced concrete slab and a one-way joist slab?

A: A reinforced concrete slab is a slab that is reinforced with steel bars or mesh to resist bending and cracking, while a one-way joist slab is a slab that is reinforced with steel joists or beams that span between walls or columns and support the slab.

Q: What is the difference between a static and dynamic load?

A: A static load is a load that does not change over time, while a dynamic load is a load that changes over time, such as a moving vehicle or a fluctuating water level.

Q: What is the difference between a soil and a rock?

A: A soil is a loose or unconsolidated material that is composed of mineral particles, organic matter, and water, while a rock is a solid, naturally occurring material that is composed of one or more minerals.

Q: What is the difference between a slab and a beam?

A: A slab is a flat, horizontal structural element that spans between supports, while a beam is a horizontal or sloping structural element that is used to support loads by resisting bending.

Q: What is the difference between a foundation and a footing?

A: A foundation is the structural element that supports a building or other structure and transmits its weight to the ground, while a footing is the wider base of a foundation that spreads the load over a larger area of soil.

Q: What is the difference between a culvert and a bridge?

A: A culvert is a structure that carries water under a road or railway, while a bridge is a structure that carries traffic over a river, valley, or other obstacle.

Q: What is the difference between a sewer and a stormwater drain?

A: A sewer is a pipe or channel that carries wastewater from buildings to a treatment plant, while a stormwater drain is a pipe or channel that carries rainwater from streets and other surfaces to a nearby stream or river.

Q: What is the difference between an open and a closed conduit?

A: An open conduit is a channel or pipe that is open to the atmosphere and allows free surface flow, while a closed conduit is a pipe or tunnel that is completely enclosed and carries water under pressure.

Q: What is the difference between a revetment and a gabion?

A: A revetment is a protective structure that is built to prevent erosion and scour along the bank of a river or channel, while a gabion is a wire mesh basket that is filled with stones or other materials and used to stabilize slopes and prevent erosion.

Q: What is the difference between a centrifugal pump and a positive displacement pump?

A: A centrifugal pump is a pump that uses a rotating impeller to create a flow of fluid, while a positive displacement pump is a pump that uses a series of reciprocating or rotating elements to trap and displace a fixed volume of fluid.

Q: What is the difference between a truss and a frame?

A: A truss is a structural element that consists of a series of interconnected triangles, while a frame is a structural element that consists of interconnected beams and columns.

Q: What is the difference between a retaining wall and a free-standing wall?

A: A retaining wall is a wall that is used to retain soil or water and is supported by a foundation, while a free-standing wall is a wall that is not used for support or retention and is self-supporting.

Q: What is the difference between a masonry structure and a timber structure?

A: A masonry structure is a structure that is constructed primarily using bricks, stones, or concrete blocks, while a timber structure is a structure that is constructed primarily using wood or other types of lumber.

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