DOORS AND WINDOWS TYPES OF WINDOWS Depending upon the manner of fixing, materials used for construction, nature of the operational movements of shutters , etc., the common varieties of windows used in the building can be grouped as follows: 1. Casement windows 2. Sliding windows 3. Metal windows 4. Corner windows 5. Gable windows bay … Read more

DAMP PREVENTION: Cause Of Dampness, Effect Of Dampness and Prevention of dampness

DAMP PREVENTION Damp prevention is a chief requirement to ensure safety of building against dampness. One of the basic requirements in all the buildings is that structure should be dry as far as possible. If this is not satisfied it is likely that building may become inhabitable and unsafe from structural point of view. In … Read more

PLASTERING: The objectives of plastering, Requirement of good plaster, Materials for plastering, Method of Plastering, Different plastering technique and Defects in Plasterings

PLASTERING Applying mortar coats on the surfaces of walls, columns, ceiling etc. to get smooth finish is termed as plastering. Mortar used for plastering may be lime mortar, cement mortar or lime-cement mortar. Lime mortar used shall have fat lime to sand ratio of 1: 3 or 1: 4. If hydraulic lime is used mix … Read more

Concrete: Production of concrete, Disadvantages of improper curing, Factors affecting evaporation of water from concrete, Methods of curing

Concrete Concrete is a composite material composed mainly of water, aggregate, and cement. Often, additives and reinforcements are included in the mixture to achieve the desired physical properties of the finished material. When these ingredients are mixed together, they form a fluid mass that is easily molded into shape. Over time, the cement forms a … Read more

BRICK: Constituents of good brick earth, Harmful Ingredients in Brick, Manufacturing of bricks, Preparation of clay, Classification of Bricks as per common practice, Classification of Bricks as per constituent materials and Tests on Bricks

BRICK Constituents of good brick earth: Bricks are the most commonly used construction material. Bricks are prepared by moulding clay in rectangular blocks of uniform size and then drying and burning these blocks. In order to get a good quality brick, the brick earth should contain the following constituents. Silica Alumina Lime Iron oxide Magnesia … Read more

CEMENT: Use of Cement, Types of Cements, Composition of Cement clinker, Hydration of Cement and Various tests on cement

CEMENT Cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens and can bind other materials together. Cements used in construction can be characterized as being either hydraulic or non-hydraulic, depending upon the ability of the cement to be used in the presence of water. Non-hydraulic cement will not set in wet conditions or underwater, … Read more